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Nymphicus hollandicusGrey Cockatiel

 Family

  • Cacatuidae

Lifespan

  • 16-25 years

Size

  • Height: 12-14 inches head to tail
  • Weight: 88-178 grams

Origin

  • Australia

Habitat

  • Arid or semi-arid regions with plenty of cover such as trees
  • Always near a water source

Diet

  • Wild
    • Seeds, grains, and insect
  • Zoo
    • Cockatiel seed mixture, Mazuri brand Small Bird diet, and diced produce

ReproductionCockatiel Flock

  • Males: whistle and call frequently, brighter coloring, with no barring on tail feathers after the first molt
  • Females: generally quiet, lighter coloring, and bars on tail feathers remaining after the first molt
  • Cockatiels reach sexual maturity at 12-24 months
  • 5-10 eggs are laid and incubated for 17-24 days
  • Cockatiels often mate for life

 Facts/Info

  • Cockatiels are nomadic and will move from place to place as food and water sources become more or less prevalent
  • Cockatiels are social birds and are often seen in paired, in flocks of up to 100 individuals
  • Cockatiels are members of the parrot family and can mimic human speech, but do much better imitating sounds like bells and whistles
  • The cockatiel is the smallest, and one of the most widely spread species in the cockatoo family
  • Just like humans, cockatiels are the only living species in their genus

Conservation Status

  • IUCN: Least Concern
  • CITES: Not Listed

Sources

 
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Petaurus brevicepsSugar Glider

Family

  • Petauridae

Lifespan

  • Wild
    • 4-6 years
  • Captive
    • up to 14 years with proper care

Size

  • Length
    • 31-42 centimeters
  • Weight 
    • 70-170 grams

Range

  • Northern and Eastern Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, and surrounding islands 

Habitat

  • Temperate to tropical forest living in the canopy of trees

Diet

  • Wild
    • Nectar, sweet fruits, eucalyptus leaves, and small invertebrates
  • Zoo
    • Sweet produce (such as grapes and watermelon), waxworms and crickets, and a special concoction we call a "sugar glider cube"

ReproductionSugar Glider

  • Sugar gliders are marsupials, a primitive mammal.  Female marsupials posses a pouch, called a marsupium, which is used as a shelter for the young during development.  Gestation is very short (as is common in marsupials) - around 16 days, after which the female will typically give birth to 2 young (called joeys).  Young are born blind, bald, and nearly helpless.  They slowly climb their way through their mother's fur to the pouch where they will suckle and grow. Female marsupials do not have nipples, but secrete their milk through a gland onto the fur, which the young lap up.  Young will emerge from the pouch after 2 1/2 months and stay in the nest around 111 days.  Mothers may carry young on their backs when foraging for several months.  Breeding usually occurs between June and November so that young are born and raised in the spring and summer.

Special Adaptations

  • Sugar Gliders have a flap of skin called a 'patagium' stretching from their wrists to their ankle.  Gliders will leap from tall objects, stretch out their limbs and glide long distances (up to 50 meters) using the patagium.
  • Sugar gliders have an opposable digit on their foot, the hallux, which is analogous to our big toe.
  • Sugar glider tails, which can be as long as their body, are prehensile and can be used as a rudder while gliding, as an additional limb when climbing, or to grasp objects.
  • Sugar gliders have huge eyes - a perfect adaptation for nocturnal hunting.
  • Sugar gliders have large, extremely sharp claws which aid them in climbing.

Facts/Info

  • Although sugar gliders resemble flying squirrels, the two species are not closely related
  • A sugar glider is a type of possum
  • Sugar gliders are social amongst family members, often living in large family units in the wild
  • Males have scent glands located cranially on their head (at the top of their forehead going back onto their head) and on their stomach, which they use to mark their territory and their family members - our male will rub his head on his keepers, claiming them as his
  • When agitated, sugar gliders will emit a shrill chirping sequence that can last for several seconds
Sugar Glider

Conservation Status

  • IUCN: Least Concern
  • CITES: Not Listed
  • Although the sugar glider is not listed as being threatened under IUCN or CITES, the Australian government strictly prohibits trade in their wildlife.

Sources

  1. IUCN Red List. November, 2011 http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/16731/0

  2. Feldhamer, George A. et al., Mammalogy: Adaptation, diversity, and ecology. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004.

  3. Burnie, David and Don E. Wilson, ed. Smithsonian Institute Animal. New York: DK. 2001

  4. CITES Appendices. November, 2011 http://www.cites.org/eng/app/appendices.php

 

Bos taurus taurus scottish highlandScottish Highland Cow

Family

  • Bovidae

Lifespan

  • Late teens to mid twenties

Size

  • Height
    • 35-43 inches at shoulder
  • Weight
    • Males: 1500-1800 pounds
    • Females: 900-1200 pounds

Origin

  • As suggested by its name, this breed originated in the Scottish Highlands

Habitat

  • The Scottish Highlands - a rugged, remote rocky region comprising Northwestern Scotland.  This area has many mountains with course vegetation growing throughout.

Diet

  • Wild
    • Rough plant matter such as grasses, lichens, and mosses
  • Captive
    • A mixture of timothy and alfalfa hay

Reproduction

  • Due to late maturation and small size, the Scottish Highland should not be bred until after 2 years of age.  A single calf is common after a gestation of 280 days (9.5 months).  Calves usually weigh between 60 and 70 pounds at birth and should be able to stand within an hour of birth.  Scottish Highland cows are reported to be excellent mothers.

Special AdaptationsScottish Highland Cow

  • Scottish Highland cattle have long, thick, course hair to protect them from cold temperatures and moist conditions common to the Scottish Highlands
  • This breed appears to be more resistant to common bovine diseases than other cattle breeds

Facts/Info

  • Red is the most common color found today but Highlanders can be found in black, dun, silver, and yellow
  • Ruby, our Scottish Highland cow, is very inquisitive, but shy and will not usually approach strangers
  • Horns are found on both the male and female of this breed
  • This breed produces lean cuts of beef due to having a double-layer of hair which helps insulate them and prevents a need for fat insulation
  • Ruby is fairly calm throughout the year, but on the first large snowfall she frolics through the snow like an energetic calf!

Conservation Status

  • IUCN: Not Evaluated
  • CITES: Not Listed
  • Although domestic cattle are not threatened, there are 5 Bovid species which are in need of protections:
    • Bos gaurus (Gaur)
      • IUCN: Vulnerable
      • CITES: Appendix I
      • Found in India, China, Myanmar, Bhutan, Nepal, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Malaysia
    • Bos javanicus (Banteng)
      • IUCN: Endangered
      • CITES: Not Listed
      • Found in Myanmar, Cambodia, Thailand, and sporadically in Indonesia.  Small population introduced to Australia
    • Bos mutus (Wild Yak)
      • IUCN: Vulnerable
      • CITES: Appendix I
      • Found in China.  Historically found in China and India.  Believed to be extinct in all countries except China
    • Bos sauveli (Grey Ox/Kouprey)
      • IUCN: Critically Endangered
      • CITES: Appendix I
      • Found in Cambodia and southern Laos
    • Bubalus arnee (Indian Water Buffalo)
      • IUCN: Endangered
      • CITES: Appendix III
      • Found in India, Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand and Cambodia; all extremely fragmented

Scottish Highland dashing through the snow

Sources

  1. CITES Appendices. Accessed December 2012. www.cites.org
  2. IUCN Red List of Endangered Species. Accessed December 2012.  www.iucnredlist.org
  3. American Highland Cattle Association… the Grande Old Breed… 2011. The American Highland Cattle Association. 13 November 2011  http://www.highlandcattleusa.org/Default.aspx

  4. Feldhamer, George A. et al., Mammalogy: Adaptation, diversity, and ecology. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004.

  5. Highland.  5 June 1996. Oklahoma State University. 13 November 2011 http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/cattle/highland/

  6. “AHCA Highlands Breeder’s Guide”. The Bagpipe. Volume 15, Issue 2: Pages 27- . 13 November 2011 http://www.highlandcattleusa.org/content/BreedersGuide.pdf